The Russian Space Forces are a branch of the Russian Aerospace Forces, that provides aerospace warning, air sovereignty, and protection for Russia. Having been reestablished following August 1, 2015 merger between the Russian Air Force and the Russian Aerospace Defence Forces after a 2011 dissolving of the branch. The Russian Space Forces were originally formed on August 10, 1992 and the creation of the Russian Armed Forces.
The Russian Pion-NKS (14F139) satellites are the naval component of the next generation ELINT satellite system Liana. As a replacement for both the passive ELINT US-PM and the active radar US-A, they carry both ELINT sensors as well as an active radar.