Soyuz | Soyuz 18

Soyuz | Soyuz 18

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Baikonur Cosmodrome, Republic of Kazakhstan

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Soviet Space Program

The Soviet space program, was the national space program of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) actived from 1930s until disintegration of the Soviet Union in 1991. The Soviet Union's space program was mainly based on the cosmonautic exploration of space and the development of the expandable launch vehicles, which had been split between many design bureaus competing against each other. Over its 60-years of history, the Russian program was responsible for a number of pioneering feats and accomplishments in the human space flight, including the first intercontinental ballistic missile (R-7), first satellite (Sputnik 1), first animal in Earth orbit (the dog Laika on Sputnik 2), first human in space and Earth orbit (cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin on Vostok 1), first woman in space and Earth orbit (cosmonaut Valentina Tereshkova on Vostok 6), first spacewalk (cosmonaut Alexei Leonov on Voskhod 2), first Moon impact (Luna 2), first image of the far side of the Moon (Luna 3) and unmanned lunar soft landing (Luna 9), first space rover (Lunokhod 1), first sample of lunar soil automatically extracted and brought to Earth (Luna 16), and first space station (Salyut 1). Further notable records included the first interplanetary probes: Venera 1 and Mars 1 to fly by Venus and Mars, respectively, Venera 3 and Mars 2 to impact the respective planet surface, and Venera 7 and Mars 3 to make soft landings on these planets.

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Soyuz 18

Soyuz 18 was the second and final crew to man the Salyut 4 space station. The mission began on May 24th 1975 at 1458:10 UTC, launching Commander Pyotr Klimuk & Flight Engineer Vitali Sevastyanov into orbit docking with Salyut 4 2 days later. They stayed on the station for 63 days setting a new Soviet space endurance record at the time. Klimuk & Sevastyanov were the back-up crew for the failed Soyuz 18a mission so their mission goals included completing the goals of Soyuz 18a, continuing the work of Soyuz 17 & fixing or replacing equipment. They replaced a gas analyzer, switched a pumping condenser in the water regeneration system with a hand pump & fixed a spectrometer. Mostly the experiments were biological & medical but they also studied stars, planets, earth and its atmosphere with roughly 2000 photographs of Earth and 600 of the sun taken. The mission concluded with a safe landing on June 26th 1975 at 1418:18 UTC.

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Soyuz 18


Serial Soyuz 7K-T 11F615A8 #40

Launch Crew Count 2

Status Single Use

Landing Time 1975-07-26T14:18:18+0000


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Crew

Pyotr Klimuk

Commander

Nationality Belarusian

Date Of Birth 1942-07-10

Status Retired

Type Government


Vitaly Sevastyanov

Flight Engineer

Nationality Russian

Date Of Birth 1935-07-08

Deceased 2010-04-05

Status Deceased

Type Government


Soyuz


Height 0.00 Meters

Max Stages 0

Mass To GTO 0 kg

Liftoff Thrust 0 kN

Diameter 0.00 Meters

Mass To LEO 0 kg

Liftoff Mass 0 Tonnes


Launch Success 30

Consecutive Success 3

Maiden Flight Unknown

Launch Failures 2


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