The International Space Station programme is tied together by a complex set of legal, political and financial agreements between the sixteen nations involved in the project, governing ownership of the various components, rights to crewing and utilization, and responsibilities for crew rotation and resupply of the International Space Station. It was conceived in 1984 by President Ronald Reagan, during the Space Station Freedom project as it was originally called.
The Canadian Space Agency was established by the Canadian Space Agency Act which received Royal Assent on May 10, 1990. The Canadian space program is administered by the Canadian Space Agency. Canada has contributed technology, expertise and personnel to the world space effort, especially in collaboration with ESA and NASA. In addition to its astronauts and satellites, some of the most notable Canadian technological contributions to space exploration include the Canadarm on the Space Shuttle and Canadarm2 on the International Space Station.
The European Space Agency is an intergovernmental organisation of 22 member states. Established in 1975 and headquartered in Paris, France, ESA has a worldwide staff of about 2,000 employees. ESA's space flight programme includes human spaceflight (mainly through participation in the International Space Station program); the launch and operation of unmanned exploration missions to other planets and the Moon; Earth observation, science and telecommunication; designing launch vehicles; and maintaining a major spaceport, the Guiana Space Centre at Kourou, French Guiana.
The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) is Japan's national aero-space agency. Through the merger of three previously independent organizations, JAXA was formed on 1 October 2003. JAXA is responsible for research, technology development and the launch of satellites into orbit, and is involved in many more advanced missions, such as asteroid exploration and possible manned exploration of the Moon. JAXA launch their Epsilon vehicle from the Uchinoura Space Center and their H-II vehicles from the Tanegashima Space Center.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research. NASA have many launch facilities but most are inactive. The most commonly used pad will be LC-39B at Kennedy Space Center in Florida.
The Roscosmos State Corporation for Space Activities, commonly known as Roscosmos, is the governmental body responsible for the space science program of the Russian Federation and general aerospace research. Soyuz has many launch locations the Russian sites are Baikonur, Plesetsk and Vostochny however Ariane also purchases the vehicle and launches it from French Guiana.
NASA astronaut Chris Cassidy, Expedition 63 commander, will hand over the International Space Station command to ROSCOSMOS cosmonaut Sergey Ryzhikov who will become commander of Expedition 64.
The Soyuz MS-16 spacecraft will undock from the International Space Station carrying three Expedition 62 crew members : ROSCOSMOS cosmonauts Anatoli Ivanishin and Ivan Vagner as well as NASA astronaut Chris Cassidy.
The "Resilience" Crew Dragon will dock autonomously to the International Space Station, carrying JAXA astronaut Soichi Noguchi and NASA astronauts Victor J. Glover, Shannon Walker and Michael S. Hopkins to the International Space Station as crew members of Expedition 64.
The "Resilience" Crew Dragon hatch will be opened, allowing JAXA astronaut Soichi Noguchi and NASA astronauts Victor J. Glover, Shannon Walker and Michael S. Hopkins to enter the International Space Station as crew members of Expedition 64.
Representatives from NASA’s International Space Station Program, SpaceX, and the U.S. Air Force’s 45th Space Wing will host a Prelaunch news conference detailing information about the CRS-21 Mission.
On Sunday, Feb. 28, NASA astronauts Kate Rubins and Victor Glover will step out of the space station to begin assembling and installing modification kits required for upcoming solar array upgrades. The current solar arrays are functioning well, but have begun to show signs of degradation, as expected, as they were designed for a 15-year service life. The first pair of solar arrays were deployed in December 2000 and have been powering the station for more than 20 years. Later this year, the new solar arrays will be positioned in front of six of the current arrays, increasing the station’s total available power from 160 kilowatts to up to 215 kilowatts. Rubins will be extravehicular crew member 1 (EV 1) wearing red stripes. Glover will be extravehicular crew member 2 (EV 2) and wear a suit with no stripes.
The crew of SpaceX's Crew-2 mission, NASA astronauts Shane Kimbrough and Megan McArthur as well as JAXA astronaut Akihiko Hoshide and ESA astronaut Thomas Pesquet will answer press questions during a live-streamed news conference.
NASA and JAXA astronauts Kate Rubins and Soichi Noguchi will venture outside the orbiting outpost to vent ammonia from the Early Ammonia System and complete several other tasks. The pair will install a “stiffener” on the Quest airlock thermal cover to prevent it from blowing out when residual atmosphere escapes as the hatch is opened. Glover began addressing this issue on a previous spacewalk by installing a stronger magnet to keep the cover closed. The crew also will remove and replace a wireless video transceiver assembly. Rubins will be EV 1 and Noguchi will be EV 2.
NASA astronauts Victor Glover and Michael Hopkins will venture outside the orbiting outpost to vent early ammonia system jumper cables and relocate one of them near the Quest airlock in order to reconnect the jumper cable to the current cooling system, increasing its efficiency. The duo also will connect cables for the Columbus Bartolomeo payload platform, continuing work from a Jan. 27 spacewalk, and replace a cable for an amateur radio system. Additionally, the astronauts will replace a wireless antenna assembly on the Unity module, install a “stiffener” on the airlock’s thermal cover to provide additional structural integrity, and route cables to provide ethernet capabilities for two high-definition cameras on the station’s port truss, or “backbone.” Glover will wear red stripes on his suit as extravehicular crew member 1 (EV 1) during what will be the fourth spacewalk of his career. Hopkins will be EV 2 and wear a suit with no stripes during what will be his fifth spacewalk. Hopkins will wear a high-definition camera on his helmet to provide clear views of the Columbus connectors. The mating of these connectors is one of several tasks deferred from previous spacewalks to allow astronauts to finish installing modification kits for new solar arrays set to launch later this year.
NASA astronauts Michael Hopkins, Victor Glover, and Shannon Walker, along with Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Soichi Noguchi, will relocate the Crew Dragon spacecraft to prepare for the arrival of new crew members in late April and the upcoming delivery of new solar arrays this summer. The relocation will free Harmony’s forward port for the docking of Crew Dragon Endeavour, set to carry four crew members to the station on NASA’s SpaceX Crew-2 mission.
The Soyuz MS-18 spacecraft will dock to the International Space Station carrying three new Expedition 65 crew members : ROSCOSMOS cosmonauts Oleg Novitsky and Pyotr Dubrov as well as NASA astronaut Mark Vande Hei.
ROSCOSMOS cosmonaut Sergey Ryzhikov, Expedition 64 commander, will hand over the International Space Station command to ROSCOSMOS cosmonaut Oleg Novitsky who will become commander of Expedition 65.
The Soyuz MS-17 spacecraft will undock from the International Space Station carrying Expedition 64 crew members ROSCOSMOS cosmonauts Sergey Ryzhikov and Sergey Kud-Sverchkov as well as NASA astronaut Kathleen Rubins.
The "Endeavour" Crew Dragon will dock autonomously to the International Space Station, carrying NASA astronauts Shane Kimbrough and Megan McArthur, JAXA astronaut Akihiko Hoshide and ESA astronaut Thomas Pesquet to the International Space Station as crew members of Expedition 65.
The "Endeavour" Crew Dragon hatch will be opened, allowing NASA astronauts Shane Kimbrough and Megan McArthur, JAXA astronaut Akihiko Hoshide and ESA astronaut Thomas Pesquet to enter the International Space Station as crew members of Expedition 65.
The "Resilience" Crew Dragon will undock from the International Space Station, carrying JAXA astronaut Soichi Noguchi and NASA astronauts Victor J. Glover, Shannon Walker and Michael S. Hopkins. It will then reenter the Earth's atmosphere and splashdown in the Atlantic Ocean.
The "Resilience" Crew Dragon will splashdown in the Gulf of Mexico, bringing JAXA astronaut Soichi Noguchi and NASA astronauts Victor J. Glover, Shannon Walker and Michael S. Hopkins back to Earth after spending almost six months on the International Space Station.